Bike Lanes Are White Lanes by Melody Hoffmann

For decades bicycle advocates fought against standard transportation planning methods that put the car above all other modes of transportation. They were persistent and finally gained ground in most major cities. As Justin Spinney said, "biking is understood as apple pie; no one can hate apple pie." The problem now that we have fairly equal treatment of bicycle infrastructure as vehicular is we can see the impacts they have had on low income and minority neighborhoods. 

As with any major issue, there are always multiple ways to frame the issue. I see a bike lane and think about the ability it has to get me to work in the fair weather seasons and to recreational activities on weekends. Another person may look at it and see their only mode of transportation or a sign of poverty. Hoffmann tells a story of a teacher whose minority students did not understand why he chose to bike even though he had the option to drive. Biking was seen as a sign of poverty and done only if you had no other choice. This brings up the concept of white privileged. We have the option to drive, but choose to bike for health or environmental reasons. Others do not have the privileged of choosing.

Even if we get past the stigma of biking, some communities have yet to heal from the destructive segregation and disinvestment that occurred during the highway infrastructure boom starting in the 1950's. Why would bicycle infrastructure projects be any different than the highways that tore through their neighborhoods? Residents in those communities have a valid concern. 

[E]ven as we believed that making our urban neighborhoods more bike-friendly would benefit all residents, we might be seen as unwelcome symbols of gentrification and change.
— Lugo

Trying to heal communities and bridge the racial gap is finally gaining some support. In cities like Milwaukee where the annual Riverwest 24 bike race takes place, community members seek to end racial disparities that plague their city. Riverwest 24 is a community organizing event, that happens to throw in some fun bike riding as well. One tool Riverwest uses is whole community organizing, a method that crosses race, class, and ethnic divides. By not focusing on specific issues and relying on face to face interaction, neighbors learn to trust one another and work together. The connections and knowledge gained at the bike event is used throughout the year to advance the neighborhood.

Lastly, a book that discusses race and equity cannot escape the topic of gentrification. While the author acknowledges the mere creation of bicycle infrastructure does not automatically lead to gentrification, it certainly is perceived that way. The white, upwardly mobile class has the power to lobby for bike infrastructure and have it placed in the areas they deem necessary. Previously, the rest of the community has just had to listen and accept it. That has recently changed, with residents of historically disparaged neighborhoods fighting back against bike lanes they feel will start to displace themselves and their neighbors. A quote from Anthony Taylor of the Major Taylor Bicycling Club sums it up best:

We need to be working through initiatives that are genuinely created by, owned by, and reflect the culture and philosophy and mindset and vision of the communities we’re working in.

Minnesota 1918: When Flu, Fire, and War Ravaged the State

Minnesota 1918: When Flu, Fire, and War Ravaged the State

When I began reading Minnesota 1918: When Flue, Fire, and War Ravaged the State I thought it would be merely an interesting historical account of events. Early into the book I realized how closely tied to city planning the historical account was. The effects of the fall 1918 fires devastated the northeast portion of the state. Entire towns were leveled, while others were spared. This meant cities had to make decisions on how and where they would rebuild. The Spanish flu pandemic that was raging around the world, was especially detrimental to the Minnesota residents left homeless, forced to live in small, crowded quarters. Again, this had a drastic effect on cities with daily life and the need to build more hospitals to accommodate the sick.

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Walkable City by Jeff Speck

Walkable City by Jeff Speck

I stopped buying books after about the third time I moved, realizing they weigh a ton, but after checking Walkable City by Jeff Speck out from the library, I wished I had just purchased it. The number of sticky notes stuffed into the book from reading on the bus caused me twice as much work as I transferring them to my notes later. All the sticky notes reflect what a great source of knowledge and ideas this book is. I found many quotes, including this one from page 3:

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The Art of Building Cities by Camillo Sitte

The Art of Building Cities by Camillo Sitte

My family has come to know that I love to read books, especially if they are related to planning. So this past Christmas, my sister-in-law gave me the Art of Building Cities by Camillo Sitte. I am surprised I have yet to come across this book, especially when I was conducting research for my public square paper last summer. This book was written and published in 1896, but the teachings within are still relevant today. Some however will be very difficult to implement given the rigid grid we chose to lay our cities out with.

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Route 66 by Jim Hinckley

Route 66 by Jim Hinckley

Anytime I hear the name Route 66 I immediately think of the animated movie Cars. Little did I know that those cartoon vehicles were based on real people and the town is a compilation of real cities along the highway that stretches from Chicago, Illinois to Santa Monica, California. Route 66 was established in 1926 and takes up much of the National Old Trails Highway which was the primary way to travel during the early 1900's. Route 66 officially ceased to be recognized as part of the official highway system in 1984. It was replaced by the Interstate Highway System started in 1956. 

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Divided Highways by Tom Lewis

Divided Highways by Tom Lewis

No single act of congress has so drastically changed the American landscape like the 1956 Federal Aid Highway Act signed by President Eisenhower. Originally expected to cost $25 billion and take 12 years to create the Interstate System, it was not completed until 1992 at a cost of $114 billion. It is easy to look back now and see the glaring problems of the system and criticize the engineers of the 1950's and 1960's, but they were just trying to solve the transportation system lying in front of them. Their failure came when they ignored the socioeconomic and environmental problems created by the system.

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City of Parks by David C. Smith

City of Parks by David C. Smith

I read the City of Parks by David C. Smith shortly after moving to the Twin Cities. I had visited a few of the parks, but was fascinated by the rich history that encompassed the Minneapolis park system. Until reading the book, I did not know that an independent board of elected representatives ran the park system instead of a city department. It was not easy however to get the park board established. 

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The Exploding Metropolis

The Exploding Metropolis

Despite what it may appear, back in the 1950's when the car was starting to take over the city, there were people concerned. William Whyte Jr., along with Francis Bello, Symour Freedgood, Daniel Seligman, and the infamous Jane Jacobs each wrote a chapter to contribute to the book The Exploding Metropolis. Their topics ranged from designing downtown's from the pedestrian, not architectural perspective view, slum creation, urban sprawl, and the strength and power of government officials.

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Milwaukee Avenue by Robert Roscoe

Milwaukee Avenue by Robert Roscoe

When we first moved to Minneapolis, my husband and I relied heavily on our friends to navigate us as we biked around the city. On one of these early excursions, they took us on what seemed like a peculiar shortcut through the middle of a residential block. It was a wide sidewalk with Victorian-style houses along both sides, their front porches within feet of the path. I remembered thinking that these homes must have been part of the urban planning movements of the early 1900's. I had no idea until reading Milwaukee Avenue: Community Renewal in Minneapolis the incredible history that this neighborhood had.

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The Chessboard and the Web by Anne-Marie Slaughter

The Chessboard and the Web by Anne-Marie Slaughter

While reading the Chessboard and the Web: strategies of connection in a networked world, it became evident just how connected the world has become. It is easy to spot the personal connections we have thanks to Facebook, Twitter, Linked In, and every other social media website, but networks exist in the private sector, nonprofit groups, in social movements, and even in government agencies. The most successful enterprises are those that have realized the value of networking beyond their typical circle. 

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Eating on the Wild Side by Jo Robinson

Eating on the Wild Side by Jo Robinson

A friend of mine recently suggested I read Eating on the Wild Side: The Missing Link to Optimum Health by Jo Robinson. I found the book fascinating and overwhelmed my husband with the facts and figures about nutritional content and history of fruits and vegetables. Anyone interested in choosing the most nutritious varieties to get the most from their meals should read this book. It has also inspired me to redesigning my garden for next spring to include a berry bush and quite possibly an apple tree (there may not be space for the tree though). 

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How to Kill a City by Peter Moskowitz

How to Kill a City by Peter Moskowitz

In cities across America we are seeing the negative effects of gentrification and how it has the potential to destroy culture, heritage, and displace long time residents. People are being priced out of homes, forced to "drive until they qualify." This phenomenon may seem relegated to high population centers like New York City and the tech hubs in California, but it lies in struggling communities like Detroit and New Orleans as well. No city is protected from the results of increased investment and spending.

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Mega Tech: Technology in 2050

Mega Tech: Technology in 2050

Bullets that can move around objects in air, self driving vehicles, drones filling the sky, a neural interface connecting your mind with the internet, and farm equipment that can be sent out to work your field while you are on vacation. These all seem like ideas from a fiction novel, but many of them will be realized by the year 2050. As a planner, I often look twenty years in the future to make predictions and make plans for the best possible growth patterns. The book, Mega Tech edited by Daniel Franklin, looks out more than thirty years to suggest what the future could hold.

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Design with Nature by Ian McHarg

Design with Nature by Ian McHarg

Cities all across the world are realizing their mistake in covering up natural features to construct bigger and better communities. After decades of building over rivers and streams, dredging wetlands for lakes, and sprawling across prime agricultural land, we are finally seeing the devastating impacts. The solutions to these problems are already being implemented, quicker in some municipalities than others, but they have at least started to make progress unearthing the natural features that have long been suppressed under the concrete jungle.

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Evicted by Matthew Desmond

Evicted by Matthew Desmond

As a city planner working with a rental licensing program I found Evicted by Matthew Desmond to be an eye opening and insightful book on the life of both renters and landlords. Desmond tells the story of the rental climate of Milwaukee in 2008 and 2009, just after the housing market collapsed and rents soared through the roof. While the situations Desmond wrote about in the book occurred almost ten years ago, they still proliferate throughout the U.S. today. 

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Genius of the European Square by Suzanne H Crowhurt Lennard and Henry L Lennard

Genius of the European Square by Suzanne H Crowhurt Lennard and Henry L Lennard

Imagine yourself seated on a patio overlooking a large public square. You are enjoying evening drinks with some friends before you run a few errands on the plaza on your way home for the evening. While you are seated, an old acquaintance happens by on their way to pick up a few groceries. They sit down and join in the conversation for a little while, watching their child play at the fountain a short distance away. As the sun sets everyone pays their tab, says their good byes, and heads off in different directions. 

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If You Want to Write by Brenda Ueland

If You Want to Write by Brenda Ueland

As a result of a recent preservation battle to save a 117 year old house in Minneapolis I began looking into the life of a former local author, Brenda Ueland. She was born in Minneapolis in 1891 and passed away at the age of 94 while residing at 2622 West 44th Street. It was this home that caused a controversy because the new owner set his sights on demolition in favor of more dense residential construction. The neighborhood was outraged that the City would let the last remaining tie to Ueland go, altering the area in a significant way. The City Council voted for the developer, against the decision of the Heritage Preservation Commission.

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The Permaculture City by Toby Henemway

The Permaculture City by Toby Henemway

To those like myself who did not know what permaculture was before coming across this book I will give a quick summary. Permaculture principles include both natural and human ecosystems. While it tends to be thought of as a system for designing gardens, it can be applied to a range of human activities that are both physical and non-physical. The permaculture flower is composed of ten human needs: water, shelter, waste, health, spirit, community, justice, livelihood, food, and energy. The flower, and the cities it represents, function properly when the relationships and connections between the parts is considered. Most strategies look at the sum of the parts only and loose the valuable connections that underlay the system.

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